Aro, Shittu Oluwakayode
Department of Estate Management, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife Nigeria
Correspondence to: [email protected]
Vol 3(1), pp. 1-15, March, 2022
Copyright © 2020 Author(s) and Skies Educational.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0
This study analysed various types of violence in Kaduna state in the last one decade; analysed the trend of violence in the study area from 2011 to 2021; and examined the causes of violence in the study area with a view to providing information that could guide the formulation of adequate security measures in the study area. This study utilized information from both primary and secondary data. A total of 300 questionnaires were administered, however, 198 were retrieved, giving a response rate of 65 per cent. Information on the causes of violence was obtained as primary data, while information on the trend and nature of violence was collected as secondary data. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that kidnapping violence was the most common type of violence, accounting for 36.36 per cent of all incidents of violence in the study area and that among the factors responsible for violence in the study area, the land use/ownership factor was the most significant with violence index of 3.88 while access to weapon factor was less significant with violence index of 1.27. The study recommends that Government should adopt an egalitarian approach in the distribution of economic resources in the study area.
Keywords: Access to weapons, Egalitarian approach, Kaduna state, Kidnapping violence, Land use/ownership, Violence index
 World Health Organization. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Preceding of annual conference of WHO held in Geneva. June 25, 2002
 Pavoni, A. and Tulumello, S. (2018). What is urban violence? Journal of Progress in Human Geography, (49). https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132518810432.
 The World Bank and National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria (2018). Report on Conflict Violence in Nigeria. conflict in NG_Report_28FEB2018.pdf.
 British Broadcasting Corporation News (2014). Nigeria Attacks: 100 Killed in Attacks on Villages in Kaduna. https://www.bbc.com>news
 Godwin, I (2020). Gunmen attack on Bakali Village, Giwa Local Govt. Area of Kaduna state. Publication of The Punch Newspaper, February 13, 2020, (3). Retrieved from www.punchng.com
 British Broadcasting Corporation News (2021). “Nigeria Kidnap: Gunmen Seize 140 School Children in Kaduna State”. www.bbc.com>news
 UNICEF (2021).‘1,440 Students were Abducted in Nigeria in 2021 and 25 School Attacks took Place’. https://www.aa.com.tr>africa> 1-4
 Muggah, R (2012). Researching the Urban Dilemma: Urbanization, Poverty and Violence. Ottawa: International Development Research Center.
 Anyanbola, A.L. (2007). Urban ethno communal conflict in Africa, Nigeria. http://uaps2007/Princeton.edu/download.aspx?submission/d=70032.
 Albert, I.O., Adisa J., Agbola T., and Heraut. (1994). (Eds.). Urban Management and Urban Violence in Africa.Proceedings of international symposium on Urban Management and Urban Violence in Africa, IFRA Ibadan 7-11 November, 1994. (1 & 2).
 Ideyi, N. (2010). The Root Causes of Violence in Nigeria: The Niger Delta Crisis, A Reference Point. A New Journal of African Studies 5(1). Retrieved from www.ajol.info>view, 52331.
 Wilson, G. (2008). ‘Examine ethno-religious violence in Indonesia: from soil to God’ South African Journal of Political Studies. Vol. 47, 2020-Issue 3. https://www.tandfonline.com
 Aliyu, A. A., Kazim, R. and Martin, D. (2011). Impact of urban violent ethno-religious conflicts on residential property values determination in Jos metropolis of northern Nigeria: theoretical perspectives and empirical findings” Journal of ISSN: Modern Applied Science. 5 (5), Sept.5, 2011. https://www.researchgate.net
 Wapwera, S. D. and Gajere, J. K. (2016). Ethno-religious Urban Violence and Residential Mobility in Nigeria Cities: The Kaduna experience. Urban Studies Research, volume 2017, 1-10.https://www.researchgate.net
 Uroko, F. C. (2018). The Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Southern Kaduna of Nigeria: Causes and Implication for National Development. Afro-Asian Journal of Social Sciences. Volume 9(2), ISSN:2229-5313. www.onlineresearchjournals.com
 World Population Review (2019). Population of Cities in Nigeria. www.worldpopulationreview.com
 Ukaji, V., Ayodokun, A. and Eze, V. (2018). Nigeria Watch: Eight Report on Violence. A Paper Series of the French Institute for Research in Africa (IFRA-Nigeria) N’59, March 15, 2019, (7).https://www.nigeriawatch.org/index.php
 United State Department of Justice (2012). Domestic Violence and Social Problems. A Publication of USDOJ, July 12, 2018, (6). www.bartleby.com
 Reuters Report (2012). The insurgency of Boko Haram in the Northeast Nigeria. Publication of January 30, 2012, 1-2.www.reuters.com
 Ahmadu-Suka, M. (2019). ‘Shiite Protest in Kaduna’. Publication of the Dailytrust Newspaper, July 11, 2019, pp.1-2https://www.dailytrust.com.ng
 Aro, S. O. (2021). A Study on the Impact of Urban Violence on Residential Properties Rental in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. MSc. Dissertation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
 British Broadcasting Corporation News (2018). Nigeria Kaduna: Bandits slaughter 51 villagers. www.bbc.com>news
 British Broadcasting Corporation News (2021). “No End in Sight to Wave of Kidnappings”. www.bbc.com>news
 IRIN News (2013). Bandit attacks displace northern Nigeria herders. A publication of June 19, 2013.www.thenewhumanitarian.org
 Kaduna State Peace Commission (KAPECOM) reports (2019)
 Mckenna, A. (2019). History of Kaduna.https://www.britannica.com
 Saxone, A. and Abdulganiyu, A. (2020). El-Rufai Apologises for Failure to Provide Security. Publication of The Guardian Newspaper, March 3, 2020, (5).
 Skiklam, J. (2018). The Unending Cycle of Violence in Kaduna. A Publication of Thisday newspaper November 12, 2018, 1-2. https://www.thisdaylive.com
Google Scholar Citations
Aro, Shittu Oluwakayode: The author has Bachelor of Technology, (B.Tech) from the Department of Estate Management and Valuation, Faculty of Environmental and Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Also, he obtained Master of Science (MSc.) Degree (Research) in Estate Management from the Estate Management Department, Faculty of Environmental Design and Management, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife Nigeria. He is an associate member of the Nigeria Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV) and a registered member of Estate Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON). The author is a Principal consultant at Aro Shittu Consult, a firm of Estate Surveying, Management and Assets Valuation.
All correspondence should be forwarded to:
Aro Shittu Oluwakayode [email protected] (08033700054).
CrossRef Article Metrics
How to cite this article
Aro S. O. (2022): Analysis of the nature of violence in Kaduna, Nigeria. Applied Research Journal of Science and Technology, 3(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.47721/ARJST202201011